Tag Archives: teaching

Teaching Chinese

Not teaching the language:  teaching the people.  My experience as a science and history professor in China.

Before I arrived, I easily found dozens of blogs and websites about teaching English in China.  Most of these are focused on the secondary school level, hardly any are about teaching other subjects.  I am a U.S. biology professor teaching both biology and world history. A notable exception are the many profs who, like me, came to Zhuhai to teach at an intensive English university.  Their advice was wonderful preparation for this trip (so thank you, Mike and Laura, Amy, and Michelle).  I recommend Hvidsten-Richards‘ and Michelle Rusinko‘s blogs for more information!

So this blog post not only should answer my family’s questions (“Hey, how’s that job going?”) but I hope that it might serve as a nice resource for U.S. professors interested in working in Chinese higher education.

UIC employs a lot of international interns (i.e., Minnesota liberal arts graduates).  They provide one-on-one grammar help, act as conversational English partners, and create a lunchtime club for firstyear students to practice speaking English.
UIC employs a lot of international interns (i.e., Minnesota liberal arts graduates). They provide one-on-one grammar help, act as conversational English partners, and create a lunchtime club for first-year students to practice speaking English.  Many interns, and young English teachers everywhere in China, have blogs you can read.

 

Liberal Arts in southern China

My employer (whilst on sabbatical) is United International College (Zhuhai, Guangdong Province) which is supposed to be China’s first Western-style liberal arts college.  It really does come close.  All classes are in English, and that is a powerful draw for students (or their parents).   Most majors are very practical (business management, accounting, etc.), which makes sense given China’s Deng-inspired economic push.  But there are less traditional majors, like social work and environmental studies, which are very unusual.

A view from the fourth floor shows the Chinese national flag, the opposite wing of the academic building, and the low, forested hills beyond.
The academic building at United International College, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province.  A view from the fourth floor shows the Chinese national flag flying with low, forested hills beyond.

 

UIC's academic building is full of stairs and ... angles.
UIC’s academic building is full of stairs and … angles.  A little odd, but I really liked it!

 

No matter what your major is, having graduated from an intensive English college curriculum will definitely be useful in globalized hypercapitalist China.  Thus it should also come as no surprise that UIC attracts top-scoring (a.k.a. “wealthy”) students from across the nation.  And every student takes electives (a very radical concept here), which is my job.  The General Electives Office is a hodgepodge of profs that teach history, religion, art, music, and culture.

I am a marine fisheries geneticist by training, but I have taught a wide variety of courses and the occasional lecture on music or history or gender (it’s a liberal arts college thing).  So here I am in China, teaching a non-majors science class without a lab, The Biology of Seafood.  The other class, based on my personal interest in maritime history, is The History of Ocean Exploration (you can read about the particulars of these classes here).  Both are small classes of 50 students.  My colleagues teach 3-5 classes of this size each semester but, as a visitor, I have a lower workload.

In addition to General Electives, every student must enroll in a series of courses that designed for “Emotional Health.”  EH classes include meditation, tai chi, calligraphy, classical Chinese music, longbow archery, etc.  I really love this aspect of the college, and that UIC is at least trying to fight the rapid loss of traditional Chinese culture in the rush for Western-style materialism.

Simon, Joel, and a dragon's head at the UIC student talent show.  UIC students are in classes and clubs that celebrate traditional culture, from taichi to mastering the Chinese longbow.
Simon, Joel, and a dragon’s head meet at the UIC student talent show. UIC students are in classes and clubs that celebrate traditional culture, from wushu to zither playing.

 

Foreign Professors at UIC

UIC tries to have a very global institution, and so nearly half of their faculty are not mainland Chinese.  A third are from nearby Hong Kong, and the rest are expats like myself.  I have tried to get a sense of what faculty are required and requested to do with their time, but this varies quite a bit by department.  As UIC is actually the product of a partnership between two very large universities, a lot of policies and protocols are examined by one of big brother schools.  For instance, there is a lengthy approval process for all syllabi and final exams (which have to be written nearly two months in advance).

My office at United International College.  All offices are shared, but my officemate was hardly ever in our room.  My only decorations were a world map in Chinese, and a metal model airplane that Susie gave me.
My office at United International College. All offices are shared, but my officemate was hardly ever in our room. My only decorations were a world map in Chinese, and a metal model airplane that Susie gave me.
The view from my wing of the UIC academic building.  It's a hazy, wintry February day.
The view from my wing of the UIC academic building. It’s a hazy, wintry February day.  But no matter the weather, verdant hills dominate the horizon.

 

Contract teachers ( = real professors) do not seem to have any formal advising, and UIC has far, far fewer committees and meetings than what I am used to from Whitman and Gustavus.  But, just like I guess everywhere, the faculty are asked to publish research (with little resources) while they also create long university documents that talk about assessment.  The latter are reviewed by another institution, the faculty then rewrite it, any requests for money are denied, and the experience is soon forgotten…until it is time for the 10-year department review or some other paper-generating exercise.

The Jungle Cafe does a brisk business from 7-9am with overstressed, undercaffeinated professors.  And that is not a giant misshapen steamed bun on the floor, it's a dog.  Don't worry - everyone makes that mistake.
The Jungle Cafe does a brisk business from 7-9am with overstressed, undercaffeinated professors.  The young barista makes sandwiches and awesome lattes and cappuccinos.  Oh, and at the bottom of the photo — it is not a giant misshapen steamed bun, it’s a dog. Don’t worry – everyone makes that mistake.

 

As a member of the Minnesota collection of colleges (the MPCC) that have partnered with UIC, I was granted special benefits.  Namely, a wonderful coordinator of international studies, and an IS staffperson assigned to my family.  They helped in our transition, from meeting us at the ferry on our first night, taking us shopping for dishes, impromptu translation help over the phone, and helping us find a part-time nanny for Simon.  It was a shock when I learned that other professors were not being given the same treatment.  Thanks, UIC!!

But enough about the professors… what are the students like?

Centuries of Examinations

In ancient times, China’s empire was so vast that there simply were not enough warlords’ sons and nephews to rule.  That, and the ideas of Confucious, called into being a system of state examinations so that only those with knowledge could administer law (a meritocracy).  So while the ancient Greeks were just starting to philosophize about matter and math and such, the first Chinese students were already memorizing, cheating, and bribing to pass the governmental civil service exam.  Imagine 2,500 years of No Child Left Behind … s/he who memorizes annoying little details wins, and critical thinking be damned.

An ancient Chinese painting of the civil service examination.  So little has changed...
An ancient Chinese painting of the civil service examination. So little has changed…

 

The few students of China that I have taught are both victims and perpetrators of this system.  They long for ANYthing different in a classroom…anything that is not a lecture to be memorized and repeated verbatim on an exam.  This means that any teacher with dedication, imagination and the courage to try new things can do very, very well here.  However, it also means that (even the great) students have little experience constructing an argument, using books to find evidence, or learning to be critical of what they read and hear.   It is a difficult task, but UIC is trying to bring liberal arts electives and independent undergrad research to students from a very traditional environment.

Students, professors and guests gather around student research posters.  It's a lot like Gustavus' Celebration of Student Inquiry, except that UIC students are all dressed in expensive suits and dresses for the occasion.
Students, professors and guests gather around student research posters at an annual student research event. It’s a lot like Gustavus’ Celebration of Student Inquiry, except that UIC students are all dressed in expensive suits and dresses for the occasion.  Many of these students have more money than my colleagues back in Minnesota…

 

But of course for some students the rote exams also breed an outlook that education is a chore to be overcome, and the professor as someone who needs to be placated just long enough for the students to move on and get a job.  Which brings me to…

Personal responsibility and Overcommitment

In China, there seems to be a different sense of what a student is responsible for in their own education.  Handouts are not read, basic instructions not followed.  Complete surprise that there is an exam next week, or at all.  Not bothering to track their own grades.  Six weeks into the semester, a student said that they could not access the university-wide software (Moodle) which contained all of the readings and handouts for the semester.  Routinely showing up 20 minutes late for class, openly texting/sleeping/talking, even while the professor speaks. Outrage that I would give a student a 0 on their paper (20% of their class grade) simply because they forgot to turn it in until a week later.  Grade appeals (delivered in tears in the office, or formally in business letter format) that argue that their performance suffered only because the subject is so boring, but since they really, really need to graduate, they really do deserve a passing grade.

HOWEVER, bear in mind that the normal load for students here is 7-9 classes each semester (twice what is required at Gustavus).  Most of the classes have at least 1 large term paper, and those without extra writing have most of their points invested in just a few examinations.  So some of my students’ disorganization is due to exhaustion, plain and simple.  Another factor is that my college students may have simply never been asked to write an argumentative essay, or give a persuasive speech.   It can be like teaching college senior brains with grade 8 English skills.

The UIC business majors run several small stands, such as Coffee Moment, just down the hall from my office.  They are kind, sincere, and friendly.  The coffee is terrible.  Did I mention that they are kind?
In addition to taking 8 classes each semester, every student is in a club or activity.  UIC business majors run several small stands, such as Coffee Moment, just down the hall from my office. They are kind, sincere, and friendly. The coffee is terrible.  But did I mention that they are kind?

 

I also must say that at UIC, like at every institution, there are some students that simply are wonderful people.  I regret not having had more time to know them.

 

Collectivism

China is very big on the collective – people exercise in groups, dance in public in groups, eat in large groups.  That extends to the classroom.  Students greatly desire collective work, in which the most knowledgeable person does all of the work, and other students copy their results.  A naive American simply yells “Cheater!” at this behavior.  But this both makes sense and is traditional.  Why wouldn’t you do this?  Isn’t this what companies routinely do, by having their best salespeople or engineers do work, and then the entire company benefits?  Cheating is not a moral issue here: a student who does not copy down answers from a better student, or from a published author, simply has failed to do their best to report the correct answer.  So in my classroom, I never talked about cheating – I told them that they ALL needed to improve to make their groups better.  I wonder if they bought that line or not.

One of the "student village" paths, about a 15 minute walk from my office.  The UIC library is here, next to the dormitories, instead of near the classrooms.  Also there are restaurants, a cafeteria, shops, and bookstores.
One of the “student village” paths, about a 15 minute walk from my office. The UIC library is here, next to the dormitories, instead of near the classrooms. Also there are restaurants, a cafeteria, shops, and bookstores.

 

Like any college campus, there are student charity organizations, student sports exhibitions, and in this case, a student Dubbing contest.
Like any college campus, there are student charity organizations, student sports exhibitions, and in this case, a student Dubbing contest.

 

Just when you think, "Hey, UIC is not that different from Gustavus...", you find the student HQ for the Communist Party.
And just when you think, “Hey, UIC is not that different from other liberal arts colleges…”, you find the HQ for the Student Communist Party.

 

Post-script:  Jiang Xueqin

If you are interested in student education and learning in China, I recommend Sinica’s thought-provoking interview with Jiang Xueqin, author of Creative China, and education-reform advocate for China.  Sinica is the Beijing-based Chinese language and culture podcast “Popup Chinese.”  Check out the 7/11/14 episode on Education in China.

 

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Seafood and Pirates: Joel’s Classes

I taught two classes in China:  The Biology of Seafood and The History of Ocean Exploration. I am going to talk about the rest of my temporary teaching job in another post, but here is what we’ve talked about in my classroom.

Against a backdrop of modern Zhuhai buildings, a lone fisher wades into rain and low tide to dig for clams.
Against a backdrop of modern Zhuhai buildings, a lone fisher wades into rain and low tide to dig for clams.

 

The Biology of Seafood

I have taught a course like this in the U.S. both at Whitman College and at Gustavus Adolphus College.  It is fun to tell people the “behind the scenes” story of something quite ordinary.  Seafood, like cellphones or shoes, is a product that has a truly global industry.

A Biology of Seafood student gives a speech.  Student pairs were assigned half of a book chapter, and then gave a speech.  That way everyone in class at least heard the book's contents, if they didn't read it for themselves.
A Biology of Seafood student gives a speech. Student pairs were assigned half of a book chapter, and then gave a speech. That way everyone in class at least heard the book’s contents, if they didn’t read it for themselves.
A slide from The Biology of Seafood lectures.
A slide from The Biology of Seafood lecture on environmental ethics.  Most of the Seafood class is about science, but we start out with ethics and finish with fisheries economics.

 

Teaching this class in China was different. These students have little, if any, awareness that nature is disappearing at an alarming rate.  They have little practical knowledge of science, especially biology (the state of sex ed in China is woefully lacking).

The connections between living things in the ocean are more complicated and diverse than what you find on land.  To illustrate this, each student is an animal or plant.  Yarn links each student creature to what they eat, and to what eats them.  One student was a microscopic shrimp (a copepod) who couldn't move because of the 11 different strands of yarn tying her in place.
The connections between living things in the ocean are more complicated and diverse than what you find on land. To illustrate this, each student is an animal or plant. Yarn links each student creature to what they eat, and to what eats them. One student was a microscopic shrimp (a copepod) who couldn’t move because of the 11 different strands of yarn tying her in place.

 

In China, there is no problem with evolution as an accepted fact (why does any other country even question something so obvious?).   And, unlike even my most hungry sushi-obsessed American students, my Chinese students have made it clear that they really will eat anything from the ocean.  Squid in ink, steamed mantis shrimp, sauteed jellyfish  – ANYthing.

Baskets of shells in a seafood processing shop in Zhuhai.  These are for local use, but places like this ship seafood abroad as well.  Around the world, the total money made from selling cocoa, rubber, coffee and tea COMBINED almost equals the amount of money made in seafood exports from the developing world.
Baskets of shells in a seafood processing shop in Zhuhai. These are for local use, but places like this export seafood as well. Around the world, the total money made from selling cocoa, rubber, coffee and tea combined ALMOST equals the amount of money made in seafood exports from the developing world.

 

 

The History of Ocean Exploration

When I first contacted UIC for a sabbatical job, I had proposed the seafood class and four other biology classes.   Evidently they had enough science in their curriculum, thankyouverymuch.  Instead, they chose the class that I proposed based more on my hobbies than on any real qualifications.  So it is that I taught a world history course called History of Ocean Exploration.

A ceramic jar from a Tang dynasty (618-906CE) shipwreck.  Chinese porcelain has been found from Indonesia to Somalia on the "maritime Silk Road."  Photographed from a display in Guangzhou.
A ceramic jar from a Tang dynasty (618-906CE) shipwreck.  Ancient Chinese porcelain has been found from Indonesia to Somalia on the “maritime Silk Road.”  Photographed from a display in Guangzhou.

 

A slide from History of Ocean Exploration.
A slide from History of Ocean Exploration.  Roman coins have been found in ancient Chinese tombs while Chinese Buddhist artifacts have been found in Viking archaeological sites.  It always has been a small world, after all.

 

Fishing in international waters means that there are essentially no rules.  Whoever is the fastest, wins.  The resources lose.  Here, my Biology of Seafood students (fishers) have 30 seconds to gather little candies (the fish) that were hidden around the classroom (the ocean).
Fishing in international waters means that there are essentially no rules. Whoever is the fastest, wins. The resources lose. Here, my students (fishers) have 30 seconds to gather little candies (the fish) that were hidden around the classroom (the ocean).  Next, I will institute a fishing regulation – they cannot use their hands.

 

I chose little scenes from history to illustrate how the coastal world has always been global.  I used two books as texts:  Paine’s The Sea and Civilization and Konstam’s The History of Pirates.  And I got a crash course in Chinese history to boot!  We talked about stuff you may remember from school:  Columbus, the Titanic, Blackbeard.

A slide from History of Ocean Exploration.  We discussed pirates starting with ancient Greece and Rome, and finishing with Somalia and the South China Sea.
A slide from History of Ocean Exploration. We discussed pirates starting with ancient Greece and Rome, and finishing with Somalia and the South China Sea.

 

At a fishing villa just off Zhuhai's coastal highway, Susie and I discovered two dozen women putting tiny shrimp onto tiny hooks.  Around the developing world, fishing is done almost exclusively by men while women actually work longer hours mending nets, cleaning gear and fish, and selling the seafood.
At a fishing villa just off Zhuhai’s coastal highway, Susie and I discovered two dozen women putting tiny shrimp onto tiny hooks. Around the developing world, fishing is done almost exclusively by men while women actually work longer hours mending nets, cleaning gear and fish, and selling the seafood.

 

But we also talked a lot about modern issues:  why a downed airplane is hard to find, why China is sending robots to the moon, piracy off Somalia and elsewhere, how to resolve which country owns disputed islands.  And I guess that this is a very unusual approach to history in China.  From what my students told me, high school history classes are memorizing scores of dates with little attention paid to anything outside China.

 

Sailing vocabulary can be confusing, but my students really enjoyed learning pirate talk.  Especially the idiom "son of a gun."
Sailing vocabulary can be confusing, but my students really enjoyed learning pirate talk. Especially the idiom “son of a gun.”  Another slide from my History of Exploration class.

 

In History of Ocean Exploration, we talked a lot about ships.  Here is a model of a ship from the world's first peacetime navy - the Chinese navy of the Song dynasty (960-1279CE).  Song boats routinely sailed the Indian Ocean trading in silks, ceramics, metals, and spices.  From the Maritime Silk Road display in Guangzhou.
In History of Ocean Exploration, we talked a lot about ships. Here is a model of a ship from the world’s first peacetime navy – the Chinese navy of the Song dynasty (960-1279CE). Song boats routinely sailed the Indian Ocean trading in silks, ceramics, metals, and spices. From the Maritime Silk Road display in Guangzhou.

 

At the Maritime Silk Road exhibit in Guangzhou, Simon poses happily by a female guard lion.
Globalization comes full circle:  at the Maritime Silk Road exhibit in Guangzhou, Simon poses happily by a female guard lion. Simon visited my classes once or twice this semester, and all learning stopped as soon as he toddled into the door.